Ancient superstitious absurdities behind the unnecessary sacrifice and suffering of nonhumans still flourish in the modern world. Sacrificial events to rival those of biblical times—such as Solomon sacrificing of 22,000 cattle and 120,000 sheep and goats (I Kings 63) or Passover offerings of 1000s of cattle and 100s of oxen (2 Chronicles 35:8-9)—continue in Nepal with the support of officials and local businesses seeking profit. Even the sacrificing of children, once popular in Iron Age holy lands (Leviticus 18:21, 20:1-5; Deuteronomy 12:31; Ezek. 16:20-21) continues today in countries such as Africa and India, where animals are forgone for top-shelf victims thought to yield higher rewards.
We also still see the same insane spectacles of dumb human mammals hell bent on amusing themselves at the expense of others; groups of thugs ganging up on individual nonhumans; exponents of magical thinking in positions of authority and influence; animal torture turned to social, political or economic advantage. Through the ages vast numbers of animals have been condemned by the demented rituals of political and religious authority.
The sacrifice mentality still with us today demonstrates that our brains have not change much from those of primitive prehistoric times. All that has changed are the cults, the level of sophistication in the rationalizations, the cosmological underpinnings, the rituals. So pause before thinking that tribal primitivism has long past, for the festivals of today are merely variations on an ancient theme.
Think of the Western world’s primary religious festival, Christmas—a peak time of animal suffering, a time of great carnage so that people can stuff themselves even more than they had stuffed themselves the day before. “Piety and pole-axe, it will be seen, go together,” wrote Henry Salt, “in the celebration of the Christian Saturnalia.”Henry Salt, Seventy Years Among Savages (London: George Unwin & Allen, 1921), 215. Christmas continues the tradition of sacrifice based on a ludicrously conceived human sacrifice. Give away presents by all means, but why subject even more nonhuman animals to suffering based on such frivolous biblical nonsense?
Barbarism in Earlier Western Civilizations
After centuries of unbelievable carnage, the Roman world’s hunting games ending in 523 CE. These blood rituals were not about spiritual communion with gods but about domination, as if by gods. Roman officials saw that subjecting uncomprehending animals to scapegoating, baiting, coursing, blood sports, gave an outlet to and entertained the masses. Although animal sacrifices were stopped wherever Christianity spread, the gleeful ritual killing of both humans and animals for entertainment continued on. The altar of religion was exchanged for the arena of communal sadism.
It was nowhere more evident that in the hub of civilization, Christian England before the mid-19th century, which celebrated religious occasions with animal torture and killing rituals. The notorious amusements of Shrovetide days, for example, included bear baiting, bull baiting, cock fighting, and various other gallicides—these barbaric practices went on for centuries. Animal torture was, in the Christian world, normally associated with fun.
William Fitzstephen’s famous account of 12th century London informs us of festival days of hog fighting and bulls and bears pitted against hounds. Cock fighting was another popular diversion on holy days.On the popularity of animal abuse entertainment in England, see John Stow, A Survey of London (London: Whittaker & Co., 1842), 35 and Joseph Strutt, The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England (London: Methuen & Co., 1801), especially the Introduction and Chapter VI. The coarse and perverse custom of cock-throwing, which in England was criticized for making “us appear barbarous to nations much more rude and unpolished than ourselves,”Quoted in Rod Preece, Awe for the Tiger, Love for the Lamb: A Chronicle of Sensibility to Animals (London: Routledge, 2002), 133. was a traditional staple of Shrove Monday and Tuesday festivities in Europe, too. It involved throwing sticks or stones at cocks tethered to stakes or railings or imprisoned in earthenware. An English variation on the theme was hen thrashing, peculiar to Sussex, where blind folded contestants welding sticks attempt to strike a hen tied to a man wearing noisy bells.
French naturalist Jacques Henri-Bernardin in the late 1700s describes such customs, as enjoyed by rustic peasantry:
they must be led to abandon their barbaric sports, the fruit of their cruel education. One sport, among others, that I find deplorable, is that in which they take a live goose by the neck, and engage in its destruction by each in turn throwing sticks at it. During this protracted agony, lasting several hours, the poor animal flays its feet in the air, to the great satisfaction of the brutal tormentors, until the most accomplished among them succeeds in breaking its vertebrae, causing its battered carcass to fall to the ground; he then carries it off in triumph to eat with his companions. Thus passes into their blood the substance of an animal which has died enraged. These ferocious and imbecilic festivities frequently occur on chateau grounds or church property, without the lord or the priest taking the trouble to voice any opposition.Quoted in Rod Preece, Awe for the Tiger, Love for the Lamb: A Chronicle of Sensibility to Animals (London: Routledge, 2002), 168.
It is a wonder how something so depraved became a holy day entertainment on the cusp of Lent. The similar goose pulling was another form of sadism practiced in Europe and the Americas during Shrovetide or on Easter Mondays. A goose would have its head greased heavily and was then tied and dangled aloft, ready for a rider on a galloping horse to pull its head off. This pointless idiocy remains an infamous Shrovetide custom today, albeit using pre-killed birds, in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany.
Cock throwing was not just an English barbarity as many supposed. It might actually have originated with the ancient Greeks and Romans. An English writer to the Gentleman’s Magazine in 1737 believed that particular enmity against the cock in England was because it was a symbol of traditional enemy France.“An Enquiry into the Original Meaning of Cock-Throwing on Shrove-Tuesday,” Gentleman’s Magazine, Volume VII (January, 1737 Jan), 6-8. Though other countries were as culpable, it was that England acquired a reputation for cock throwing, and it was a shock to visiting foreigners to see Christian people so savagely persecuting God’s creatures.E. S. Turner, All Heaven in a Rage (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1965), 73.
Not that the irony of it all went entirely unrecognized by local scholars, artists and clergy—this from a sermon by Reverend James Granger in October, 1772:
Our humanity hath also with great appearance of reason been called in question by foreigners on account of our barbarous customs of baiting and worrying animals and especially that cruel and infamous sport still practices among us on Shrove Tuesday … character of cruelty, which is hardly to be equalled among savages.Quoted in Wynne-Tyson, Jon. The Extended Circle: A Commonplace Book of Animal Rights (Paragon House, 1989), 106 and E. S. Turner, All Heaven in a Rage (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1965), 72.
William Hogarth depicted cockthrowing in the First Stage of Cruelty, the first of his four famous engravings on cruelty in 1751, as one of the cruelties that can lead to worse behavior. Humphry Primatt holds the same opinion in his The Duty of Mercy and the Sin of Cruelty to Brute Animals, a book asserting that mercy was a primary Christian duty. He notes that even though the rooster is traditionally the Bird of Repentance, Christians are prone to attack it with particular malice, and “if there be any barbarous sport that is a particular scandal or disgrace to Christianity, I would say it is cock-throwing.”Humphry Primatt, The Duty of Mercy and the Sin of Cruelty to Brute Animals (London: R. Hett, 1776), 285-286.
It took centuries for some semblance of respectable Christian ethics to emerge more widely in Britain. Public cock fighting and cock throwing were banned in 1654 under a Protectorate order. In 1653 in the town of Maidstone, southeast of London, cock-throwing was banned as “cruel and un-Christian-like.”Rod Preece, Awe for the Tiger, Love for the Lamb: A Chronicle of Sensibility to Animals (London: Routledge, 2002), 125. Though largely ineffectual and local, these moves were signs of a groundswell of changing sentiment that would be bolstered by Enlightenment values.
Meantime, bear baiting and cock fighting remained the kind of entertainment enjoyed the aristocrats and royalty, who were in no danger of setting a good example.For more see Keith Thomas, Man and the Natural World?: Changing Attitudes in England 1500-1800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 144-145. It took until the 1750s for a significant decline in cock-throwing and by the end of the 1700s bear- and bull-baiting were disappearing, helped along by legislation banning them. Such vulgarities came to be reviled as vices of the uneducated and lower classes, much as similar practices are viewed today. With the Cruelty to Animals Act 1835, all mistreatments in Britain were outlawed and considered aberrations unfit for civilized society.
Across the channel, the French had a penchant for torturing cats, a practice that either had religious underpinnings (with a long history of folk myths associating cats with the devil) or else it was actually incorporated into religious festivals. In his book The Great Cat Massacre… And Other Episodes in French Cultural History, Robert Darnton describes how the cycle of carnival and Lent began with deviant behaviors leading up to Shrove Tuesday, when some festivities involved cat torture. Cat torture was also a part of the cycle of Saint John the Baptist, at the June summer solstice.
Crowds made bonfires, jumped over them, danced around them, and threw into them objects with magical power, hoping to avoid disaster and obtain good fortune during the rest of the year. A favorite object was cats—cats tied up in bags, cats suspended from ropes, or cats burned at the stake. Parisians liked to incinerate cats by the sackful, while the Courimauds (com a miaud or cat chasers) of Saint Chamond preferred to chase a flaming cat through the streets. In parts of Burgundy and Lorraine they danced around a kind of burning May pole with a cat tied to it. In the Metz region they burned a dozen cats at a time in a basket on top of a bonfire. The ceremony took place with great pomp in Metz itself, until it was abolished in 1765. The town dignitaries arrived in procession at the Place du Grand-Saulcy, lit the pyre, and a ring of riflemen from the garrison fired off volleys while the cats disappeared screaming in the flames. Although the practice varied from place to place, the ingredients were everywhere the same: a feu de joie (bonfire), cats, and an aura of hilarious witch-hunting.Robert Darnton, The Great Cat Massacre… And Other Episodes in French Cultural History (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 83-85.
The reasons for sacrifice were the same as noted of today’s less developed nations, for good health and financial gain. The events, in which even aristocrats and royalty partook, suggest a populace with a collective mentality equivalent to that of the deviant teenage thugs.
But let’s not forget that celebrations of sadism reminiscent of these barbarisms are still practiced today during religious festivals.
Sacrifice Delusions, A Worldwide Species Trait
Though sacrificing animals at the alter ceased to be a part of European civilization with the rise of Christianity, some Jews even today would like to see the Temple of Jerusalem rebuilt and the alter refired. They regard the resumption of animal sacrifice as God’s will—for what religious crank does not know God’s will? It is said in Leviticus that the animal sacrifice atonement system works forever and can regularly cleanse all of the children of Israel (16:29-34), so they want to keep it going. However, advocating animal cleansing tends to make Christ’s sacrifice less critical. It implies that Jesus’ sacrifice just doesn’t quite cover everything.
Perhaps passages from Leviticus are what convinced some in the Holy Land to carry on the piety of slashing animals’ throats. It is still practiced, among other places, outside of Jerusalem in the West Bank village of Taybeh at the ruins of the Byzantine church, Saint George. Various Christians, Catholics and Greek Orthodox included, participate in the slaughter of up to 80 lambs a year, whose blood is drained, from where they hang, onto an old threshold. Sacrifices are offered for help or in thanks to their god through supplications made to Saint George, a 4th century soldier. Devotees put their hands into freshly killed lambs and mark the walls.
In countries poisoned with other religions, sacrificial rites continue unabated on a mass scale. The Feast of Sacrifice or Eid al-Adha (or Bakra Eid or Id-ul-Adha) is a Muslim blood festival whose origins, like the mythical sacrifice of Jesus, date back to the abhorrent child sacrifices of the ancient world. Eid al-Adha celebrates the fable of Abraham, who was commanded by God or Allah (take your pick), as a test of faith and obedience, to sacrifice his eldest son, Isaac. When Muslims reenact this fable, slitting the throat of either a sheep, lamb, goat, cow or camel (or kidnapped aid worker), the purpose is to demonstrate a willingness to sacrifice and thus total submission to Allah. Because the meat is distributed afterwards, it also demonstrates a willingness to share with others.
As such, this is not sacrifice to expel sins, just a symbolic action using real animal killing to show compliance to an imaginary god. It is astounding to see how ancient fairy tales can cause so much needless slaughter and suffering down to this day. Over 2 days every year, more than 100 million animals are sacrificed in celebration of authoritarian piety. Children see streets filled with blood that they dip their hands in. Animals suffer the cruelties of live transport, rough handling, and being killed with a knife by anyone who cares to weld it. Often backyard slaughters have no idea of Islamic doctrine that says animals should not be mistreated.
The nightmarish insanity of the Gadhimai Festival in the Bara district of Nepal is where the largest Hindu sacrificial bloodbath is held. More than 200,000 animals—Asian water buffalo, pigs, goats, chickens, ducks, pigeons and even rats—are killed every five years. Buffalo and goats are beheaded in a random, disorganized manner by sometimes drunken men carrying machetes, khukhris, and swords. Authorities allow sacrifices within five kilometers of the temple, so anyone can kill whatever they like however they like in the bloody open fields. Animals might die slowly and in agony from inaccurate, inexperienced slaughtering and dull weapons. Many animals die before the slaughter because of poor transport or not receiving food or water for days.
Everything is poorly regulated except counting the money from the millions of visitors and participants in the madness. Everyone, including children exposed to the brutality, believe in the superstitious nonsense that sacrificing an animal to Gadhimai, a Hindu goddess of power, will lead to prosperity. As always, priests and organizers profit from such barbaric traditions and strive to keeping them going.
A similar festival takes place during the Sasarimaiko Mela in Mahottari every twelve years, when around 10,000 animals are sacrificed. Smaller sacrifices occur regularly all over Nepal at the temples of a motley collection of multicolored goddesses. Buffalo are killed by priests for the fierce goddess Kalaratri during the Dashain Festival. For the Dauthegada Dashain festivities in the Achham area, buffalo and goats are slaughtered by hundreds of ignorant devotees who believe that the goddess Barbadevi Mai is more satisfied if animals are bitten and hacked to death. At the Khokana Festival, a goat is put into a pond near the Rudrayani temple and torn apart by young men using their teeth. Other sacrifices not related to goddess temples involve burning and skinning animals alive. Animals are even killed in Nepal on Buddha’s birthday, which is contrary to Buddhist teachings.
People behind much of this carnage are superstitious, uneducated, and backward and pursue it to profit financially or to obtain good health. These motivations underpin many of the religious festivals still practiced throughout Southeast Asia.
At Nem Thuong Village, Vietnam, pigs are literally cut in half using a huge blade in honor of the village deity. Located near Hanoi, the religious blood festival attracts thousands of people who scramble to smear pigs blood on banknotes for good luck. In Taiwan, so-called Pigs of God live miserable lives being fattened for a religious festival that typically disregards animal welfare and is now a spectacle bereft of spiritual meaning. Typically in Bali, all kinds of animals feel the knife, including dogs, turtles and eagles. Balanese rites are to appease gods and demons, reputed to have a big appetite for flesh and blood. The Shinto shrine called Suwa Taisha in Japan’s Nagano Prefecture has a divine service called kawazugari, in which devotees pierce frogs with bow and arrow as sacrifices for a good harvest. Francis Coppola and his wife filmed gory scenes while working on Apocalypse Now of Ifugao villagers in the Philippines hacking caribou to pieces with machetes. The Ifugao have dead ancestors, numerous gods and minor deities and religious sacrifice typically occupies a central place in ceremonial worship. The list of sacrificial practices in Asia goes on and on, and sadly modernization has not dulled the appetite for bribing supernatural beings with animal killing.
The same is true in South American countries where indigenous practices are continued alongside Catholicism, thus hedging all bets. The Quechua Indians who work in a mine near the city of Oruro, Bolivia, make offerings of lamas for their protection and to help them find mineral riches. As Quechuas are Catholics, the mine has a shrine to the Virgin Mary, but they also cling to pre-Columbian beliefs of a spirit “uncle” who “owns” the minerals. The lamas are brought into the mine and have their throats slit and hearts cut out. Their blood is sprinkled at different levels of the mine.
Also having it both ways are Santiera practitioners, whose Afro-Caribbean religion originated in the 19th century when Yoruba slaves brought their eastern African religion to Cuba then tweaked it with Catholic elements. Santiera is an ugly marriage of pagan and Christian faith, as vile as any hodge-podge of childish beliefs entailing imaginary entities whose binding ritual is animal sacrifice. Sacrifice is absolutely central to Santiera’s syncretistic gibberish. Followers believe in imaginary helper spirits called Orishas, powerful but mortal servants of god that depend on the killing of animals for their survival—commonly chickens, but almost anything will do—dogs, ducks, doves, pigeons, goats, guinea pigs, sheep, turtles.
Florida animal activist Richard Couto has campaigned against sacrificial abuses and investigated the Santiera animal killing industry in his home state. “Some of these animals had their eyes missing, their genitalia missing,” Couto says.
Most people think that santeria sacrifices are mainly goats. They don’t know that dogs are also tortured, too. With the Haitian population, the longer that the animal suffers, the quicker that the evil spirits will come forth.Gus Garcia-Roberts, “Richard ‘Kudo’ Couto, Guerrilla Animal Activist, Targets Brutal Santeria Sacrifices,” Miami New Times Blogs, January 27, 2011, http://blogs.miaminewtimes.com/riptide/2011/01/ richard_kudo_couto_sets_sights.php.
Widespread throughout the Caribbean and Puerto Rico, Santeria has spread to the Americas and Europe, imported through immigration, poisoning modern societies with the nonsense of ancient tribal Africa.
A prohibition on animal sacrificing by the City of Hialeah in 1987 was overturned by the Supreme Court 1993 on the basis that it infringed upon religious freedom.”Linda Greenhouse, “THE SUPREME COURT; Excerpts From Supreme Court Opinions on the Ritual Sacrifice of Animals,” New York Times, June 12, 1993, http://www.nytimes.com/1993/06/12/us/supreme-court-excerpts-supreme-court-opinions-ritual-sacrifice-animals.html. The ethical consideration for animals not to be tortured or have their throats cut was apparently not an issue.
Santeria spirit feeders were as jubilant as their starved imaginary spirit friends at the decision. “Elegba is hungry,” said one worshipper of the Santeria god of destiny. “He needs to be fed his roosters to strengthen him.”Larry Rohter, Santeria Faithful Hail Court Ruling,” New York Times, June 13, 1993, http://www.nytimes.com/1993/06/13/us/santeria-faithful-hail-court-ruling.html. No fries with that, presumably.
Thus the highest court in the U.S. insists it is constitutional for nutjobs who believe in ludicrous fantasies to ritually kill animals. Just as despicable—and regrettably typical—the Santeria cause was supported by other religious groups across the board. While superstitious animal killing continues to predominate in backward and developing countries, obviously it is not exclusive to them.
Today’s Thuggery for Faith and Tourism
Europe’s Catholic countries are particularly culpable as venues for unchecked animal torture on holy days and during religious festivals. Animal tortures are even given religious significance. The most belligerent offender is, of course, Spain. With the apparent blessing of the Catholic Church, the plethora of animal abuses to mark religious occasions, some dating back to the Middle Ages, still take place in Spain every year.
Some of the most notorious include the annual San Vicente de Martir ritual fiesta at Manganeses de la Polvorosa where a goat was thrown from a church tower; the Shrove Tuesday festival at Villanueva de la Vera where a donkey is beaten and tortured to death by drunken thugs; the annual El Toro de la Vega of Tordesillas where in honor of the town’s patron saint a cowardly army of local youths spear a lone bull to death, cutting off its tail and testicles as trophies (sometimes while it is still alive); the Fiesta of San Juan, a festival of the saint, where bulls are tortured with blow darts for hours by locals and tourist aiming at their eyes and testicles, before the bulls are shot dead in the street; the fiesta in San Bartolome de Pinares, where horses are ridden through fire to celebrate Saint Antonio Abad, ironically a patron saint of domestic animals; the fiesta at El Carpio de Tajo, where goose pulling is still pulling the crowds; the fiesta of Toro Jubilo in Soria, where bulls’ horns are set on fire and bulls are taunted by revelers. Other abuses reminiscent of Medieval England are chickens being strung on a line, stuck in boxes or buried to have their heads cut off with swords; squirrels and pigeons being imprisoned in earthenware, then suspended into the air so they can be pelted with stones; rabbits being stoned to death; and pigs being greased and chased by gangs of local morons.
Catholic countries outside of Europe with a Spanish heritage are not much better. Each year in the Mexican city of Tlacotalpan bulls are tortured during the religious Fiesta de la Virgen de la Candelaria (Festival of the Virgin of Candelaria), a festival also celebrated in other South American countries, though not all with the same level of thuggery. The bulls are forced to drink liqueur then are dragged across a river tied to boats before being let loose in the streets. For a few hours drunken revelers beat and stab them, throw trash and bricks at them, punch and kick them, and cut off their ears. As with the Spanish festivals, it mostly consists of human male apes ganging up on a defenseless animal, and the festival is supported by local officials and promoted as a tourist event. In Nicaragua drunken horse riders on drunken horses yank the heads off chickens or ducks strung on wires across a road. All of these fiestas are religious events, and they have in common heroically celebrating Christians ganging up to brutalize and torture various kinds of animals.
Not in spite of but because these countries have a long Catholic tradition, the festivals have continued unhindered for hundreds of years. It is only through the efforts of campaigners like Vicki Moore, who literally put her life on the line, that a number of Spanish fiesta cruelties have been banned. But the ceasing of abuses is painfully slow, one by one, year by year. In 1997, many villages in Salamanca stopped chicken killings in bloody sideshows, which were again, ironically, to celebrate Spain’s patron saint of animals, Saint Anthony. In 1999, it was prohibited to throw a live goat from the church tower in Manganeses de la Polvorosa, although the village defied the ban until a year later. In 2003, all chicken fiestas were banned because of new Spanish animal protection laws.
Yet many blood fiestas continue to enjoy the patronage of mindless villagers and tourists all in the name of entertainment, money, and naturally religious tradition. Still now, more than 15,000 villages do everything to ensure that animal killing is central to their fiestas. As one journalist puts it, “the country’s animal welfare laws have one curious exemption: animals may be mistreated so long as it’s necessary for the smooth running of a fiesta.”Danny Penman, “Spain’s sickening ‘blood fiestas’ make bullfights seem tame – but the most shocking thing about them is YOU’RE paying for them,” Daily Mail, September 20, 2010, http://www.dailymail.co.uk /news/article-1313480/Spains-blood-fiestas-make-bullfights-tame-youre-paying-them.html. Bans, in other words, are lip service and subservient to religion and money.
What is true of all countries where bizarre serial abuses against animals occur, even in advanced nations such as the U.S., is that authorities tolerate, condone or actively promote these practices. From the Eid al-Adha to the Gadhimai Festival, murderous religious rituals have powerful political backing. The same is true of bullfighting and blood fiestas, which are reported to receive millions of dollars in subsidies and have the backing of some Members of the European Parliament, who consider animal abuse festivals and spectacles as part of Europe’s cultural heritage. True enough about the heritage, but it’s hardly anything to be proud of nor an argument for funding.
The European Union subsidizes bullfighting and fiestas to the tune of £37 million a year. Add to that the funding received indirectly via cultural heritage projects and the billions given to Spanish agriculture.Danny Penman, “Spain’s sickening ‘blood fiestas’ make bullfights seem tame – but the most shocking thing about them is YOU’RE paying for them,” Daily Mail, September 20, 2010, http://www.dailymail.co.uk /news/article-1313480/Spains-blood-fiestas-make-bullfights-tame-youre-paying-them.html. Proponents of animal sacrifice and blood festivals all appeal to tradition, attempting to ennoble childish and ignorant behavior while seeking to preserve a partnership of moronic superstitions, political popularity, and big business.
Blood festivals only show how far there is still to go until human societies can call themselves civilized. The bumbling savagery of the human ape has a long sorry history. There won’t be much improvement as long as ancient religious follies are allowed to justify torture for cheap thrills and a fast buck. Religious followers would be of less concern were it not for their support of this kind of ongoing cruelty and barbarism. Their behavior and beliefs prove it is they, not innocent animals, who truly deserve to be ridiculed and mocked on holy days.
Notes [ + ]
|1.||⇑||Henry Salt, Seventy Years Among Savages (London: George Unwin & Allen, 1921), 215.|
|2.||⇑||On the popularity of animal abuse entertainment in England, see John Stow, A Survey of London (London: Whittaker & Co., 1842), 35 and Joseph Strutt, The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England (London: Methuen & Co., 1801), especially the Introduction and Chapter VI.|
|3.||⇑||Quoted in Rod Preece, Awe for the Tiger, Love for the Lamb: A Chronicle of Sensibility to Animals (London: Routledge, 2002), 133.|
|4.||⇑||Quoted in Rod Preece, Awe for the Tiger, Love for the Lamb: A Chronicle of Sensibility to Animals (London: Routledge, 2002), 168.|
|5.||⇑||“An Enquiry into the Original Meaning of Cock-Throwing on Shrove-Tuesday,” Gentleman’s Magazine, Volume VII (January, 1737 Jan), 6-8.|
|6.||⇑||E. S. Turner, All Heaven in a Rage (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1965), 73.|
|7.||⇑||Quoted in Wynne-Tyson, Jon. The Extended Circle: A Commonplace Book of Animal Rights (Paragon House, 1989), 106 and E. S. Turner, All Heaven in a Rage (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1965), 72.|
|8.||⇑||Humphry Primatt, The Duty of Mercy and the Sin of Cruelty to Brute Animals (London: R. Hett, 1776), 285-286.|
|9.||⇑||Rod Preece, Awe for the Tiger, Love for the Lamb: A Chronicle of Sensibility to Animals (London: Routledge, 2002), 125.|
|10.||⇑||For more see Keith Thomas, Man and the Natural World?: Changing Attitudes in England 1500-1800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 144-145.|
|11.||⇑||Robert Darnton, The Great Cat Massacre… And Other Episodes in French Cultural History (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 83-85.|
|12.||⇑||Gus Garcia-Roberts, “Richard ‘Kudo’ Couto, Guerrilla Animal Activist, Targets Brutal Santeria Sacrifices,” Miami New Times Blogs, January 27, 2011, http://blogs.miaminewtimes.com/riptide/2011/01/ richard_kudo_couto_sets_sights.php.|
|13.||⇑||Linda Greenhouse, “THE SUPREME COURT; Excerpts From Supreme Court Opinions on the Ritual Sacrifice of Animals,” New York Times, June 12, 1993, http://www.nytimes.com/1993/06/12/us/supreme-court-excerpts-supreme-court-opinions-ritual-sacrifice-animals.html.|
|14.||⇑||Larry Rohter, Santeria Faithful Hail Court Ruling,” New York Times, June 13, 1993, http://www.nytimes.com/1993/06/13/us/santeria-faithful-hail-court-ruling.html.|
|15.||⇑||Danny Penman, “Spain’s sickening ‘blood fiestas’ make bullfights seem tame – but the most shocking thing about them is YOU’RE paying for them,” Daily Mail, September 20, 2010, http://www.dailymail.co.uk /news/article-1313480/Spains-blood-fiestas-make-bullfights-tame-youre-paying-them.html.|
|16.||⇑||Danny Penman, “Spain’s sickening ‘blood fiestas’ make bullfights seem tame – but the most shocking thing about them is YOU’RE paying for them,” Daily Mail, September 20, 2010, http://www.dailymail.co.uk /news/article-1313480/Spains-blood-fiestas-make-bullfights-tame-youre-paying-them.html.|