With the publication of Darwin’s The Origin of Species (1859) people began extrapolating upon the idea of evolutionary kinship. They went beyond the biological sense to see a moral sense, recognized through simple logical deduction. There is biological continuum and so too a moral continuum. Half a century on it was still part of intellectual debate. J. Howard Moore, at the turn of the 20th century, explored the theme in The Universal Kinship (1906), a book on animals that suffered crimes of exploitation despite an ethical relationship:
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Man has not a spark of so-called “divinity” about him. In important respects he is the most highly evolved of animals; but in origin, disposition, and form he is no more “divine” than the dog who laps his sores… Man is simply one portion of the immense enterprise.
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